Английский базовый курс для нелингвистов, билеты и ответы реферат по праву скачать бесплатно Russia english business company economic system May people, Сочинения из Семейное право. Moscow State University
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Английский базовый курс для нелингвистов, билеты и ответы реферат по праву скачать бесплатно Russia english business company economic system May people, Сочинения из Семейное право. Moscow State University

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примерный перечень экзаменационных вопросов АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРс ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

)1 Translate from English: In most countries criminal and civil procedures are different. For example, criminal actions are nearly always started by the state. Civil actions, on the other hand, are usually started by individuals.

)2 Translate from English: there are also many points of contact between criminal and civil law. In most countries if the loser of a civil case refuses to comply with the order made against him the procedures for forcing him to comply may result in a criminal prosecution.

)3 Translate from English: A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties regarding a specified act or thing.

)4 Translate from English: The first requisite of any contract is an agreement. At least two parties are required: one of them, the offerer, makes an offer which the other, offeree, accepts.

)5 Translate from English: The mere fact of an agreement alone doesn't make a contract. In order for such an agreement to be valid and enforceable through the courts consideration must be furnished by each party to the contract.

)6 Translate from English: Consideration is the value or benefit that a party provides to the others with whom the contract is made. Consideration can take two forms: executed consideration and executory consideration. In any case consideration must not be illegal.

)7 Translate from English: The law demands that the parties drafting a contract intended to enter into a legal relationship. In accordance with the intention of the parties to the contract all agreements may be de vided into two categories: social (domestic) and business (commercial) agreements.

)8 Translate from English: A minor is bound by contracts of employment, apprenticeship and education, which are for his benefit. And such contracts as leases of land, partnership and the purchase of shares are binding on him until he decides to reject them. He must repudiate the contract before reaching 18 not to be liable upon a contract.

)9 Translate from English: There are different types of business contracts. The most common of them are: contracts for financial services, contracts concerning land; mortgages, employment contracts, contracts of agency, contracts for the supply of goods, contracts of bailment: hire.

)10 Translate from English: The text of any international commercial contract usually begins with a preamble in which juridical names of the parties drafting a contract are given.

)11 Translate from English: The error annuls the contract with the exception of cases when the contracting party would have been equally willing to enter into a contract with any other person.

)12 Translate from Russian: Ресурсы, используемые для организации бизнеса - производства товаров и услуг, являются факторами производства. Это - земля, труд, капитал и предпринимательство.

)13 Translate from Russian: Труд - совокупный человеческий ресурс(ы), необходимый для превращения сырьевых материалов в товары и услуги. Он включает в себя работу всех работников бизнеса - от высшего руководства до работников всех звеньев организационной структуры.

)14 Translate from Russian: Чтобы понять общество, Вы должны иметь основные представления об экономических системах. Вы не можете рассчитывать на то, что разберетесь в быстрой смене событий в мире, не понимая, как функционируют экономические системы.

)15 Translate from Russian: Экономическое развитие всех стран было бы ускорено осуществлением широкой программы разоружения. Более низкие уровни военной конфронтации создали бы благоприятную атмосферу для активизации экономического сотрудничества в интересах всех и всего.

)16 Translate from Russian: Современный мир полон противоречий и опасностей. По этой причине Россия хочет, чтобы международные политические отношения были нормализованы, а экономическое развитие становилось стабильным и предсказуемым.

)17 Translate from Russian: При капитализме бизнес предстает во всех видах и размерах. Однако, в общем, бизнес - это либо товаропроизводящие, либо производящие услуги фирмы.

)18 Translate from Russian: В условиях системы частного предпринимательства люди конкурируют друг с другом. Конкуренция вместе с прибылью является краеугольным камнем этой системы.

)19 Translate from Russian: Существуют три формы предпринимательской собственности: индивидуальная собственность, товарищество и корпорация. Создавая свое предприятие, предприниматель решает, какую из этих трех форм он должен выбрать.

)20 Translate from Russian: Акция - владение частью компании и, следовательно, правом на долю любого дохода, который она приносит (дивиденд).

)21 Translate from Russian: Рынок - это группа потенциальных потребителей, обладающих правом и способностью приобретать отдельный товар или услугу, которые удовлетворяют их коллективные

запросы. )22 Translate from Russian: Покупательная способность - это то, что отделяет случайны наблюдателей от серьезных клиентов. Любой рынок нуждается в достаточном количестве последних, чтобы гарантировать производство товаров.

)23 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) Consumer and manufactured goods. B) Организовывать поток товаров и денег от производителя к потребителям.

)24 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To run a business. B) Доставлять и создавать запасы товаров (складировать).

)25 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To form a partnership. B) Сбор, накопление, сопоставление и анализ информации о рынке.

)26 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) The freedom of choice and competition. B) Издержки производства растут, а цены падают.

)27 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To liquidate or wind up a company. B) Аннулировать договор (контракт).

)28 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) Corporation and sole traders. B) Прекратить обязательства по договору (контракту).

)29 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To avoid excessive borrowings. B) Оспоримые и лишенные законной силы договоры (контракты).

)30 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To make economics. B) Исполнить договор.

)31 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To levy a tax on smth (smb). B) Договор о передаче на ответственное хранение: прокат.

)32 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: А) To lead a miserable existence. B) Повышать или понижать учетную ставку.

)33 Answer the question: What types of modern economic systems do you know? Please, name them. )34 Answer the question: How are economic decisions made in mixed capitalism? )35 Answer the question: What are the main principles of Russia's foreign policy? )36 Answer the question: Who controls the operation and direction of basic industries in modern Russia? )37 Answer the question: Economics has deep roots in, and close ties to, social philosophy? Why? )38 Answer the question: They say that economics is a behavioral science? Why? )39 Answer the question: What is a market? What kinds of markets do you know? )40 Answer the question: What are three basic forms of business ownership? )41 Answer the question: What is marketing? Which are its main functions? )42 Answer the question: What types of business contracts do you know? )43 Answer the question: What problems is Contract law concerned with? What is its role in business? )44 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The manager … (to work) at the report for two hours

when the employees of the firm came. )45 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: We all used … (to work hard) when we were young. )46 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Why do people make businesses? They do it in the hope

of …(to get) profits. )47 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Staying within a field of expertise … (to increase)

chances of any businessman for success. )48 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Small-business owners do not often succeed in … (to

run) a business. )49 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The government insists on (to impose) a new income

tax. )50 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: It is true that our director is suspected of … (to commit

a crime). )51 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Any businessman needs to speak to other people and he

can do it by … (to use) the telephone. )52 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Neither our firm nor competitive firms … (to be)

successful in … (to sell) products abroad last year. )53 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: There … (to be) a number telephone calls in our firm

today. )54 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Two firms … (to strike) just a contract for the mutual

supply of goods. )55 Insert article(s) where necessary: The United Kingdom of Great Britain and … Northern Ireland is …

constitutional monarchy. )56 Insert article(s) where necessary: Washington, …capital of the USA, is situated on both banks of …

Potomac river. )57 Insert article(s) where necessary: … Great lakes on the border with … Canada are the largest and the

deepest in ... USA. )58 Insert article(s) where necessary: The main mountain chains in Russia are ... Urals, ... Caucasus and ...

Altai. )59 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... Baikal is the deepest lake in the world and its water is ... purest on ...

Earth. )60 Insert article(s) where necessary: Russia is ... presidentail republic, it is one of ... leading powers in the

world. )61 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... economics has deep roots in and close ties to ... social philosophy. )62 Insert article(s) where necessary: Do you know that ... sun is, in round numbers, 92.000.000 miles aways

from ... Earth. )63 Insert article(s) where necessary: A limited leability company is not ... only way to run ... bisiness, it is

also possible to form ... unlimited company. )64 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... Contract law is ... branch of ... civil law. It is ... legal foundation of

all business dealings. )65 Insert article(s) where necessary: A mortgage is ... method of borrowing money on ... security of some

property. )66 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Is that house ... sale? Yes, it is, but you can buy

it ... a price. )67 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Usually businessmen rent offices ... the centre

or ... a prestige disctrict of the city. )68 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: All parents try to provide their children ... good

education and good manners. )69 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Commincation is ... great importance ...

organizational structure. )70 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: We have just placed a big order ... the goods with

this firm; they have agreed ... a 3% discount. )71 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: I have not seen my friend ... ages. He was ...

diplomatic service abroad. )72 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The legislative power in Great Britain is

exercised ... the Houses ... Parliament. )73 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Moscow is known ... its beautiful old cathedrals,

churches and monasteries. )74 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Russians are a reading nation. It is impossible to

imagine our life ... newspapers. )75 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The land of Russia varies ... thick forests ... barren

deserts, ... high picked mountains ... deep valleys. )76 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The members of the Federal Assembly of Russia

are elected ... popular vote ... a four year period. )77 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In the privarte enterprise system

the right to profit attracts people to begin business. )78 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Of late the competitive firm has

succeeded in selling its goods abroad. )79 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Sales experience greatly increases

business people’s chances in the market. )80 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Yesterday our firm concluded a

very profitable contract. )81 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: My friend is going to visit all

London art galleries next year. )82 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In the USA the president can sign

and veto any bill adopted by Congress. )83 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Barristers defend or prosecute in

the higher courts. )84 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Our University is renting a very

good facility in the centre of Moscow. )85 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: The Russian government has

maped unprecedented plans for restructuring the national economy. )86 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In all countries consumers always

compete against producers and traders. )87 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: By utilizing markering research marketers have acquired

information on consumers. )88 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Buying power will separate casual lookers from serious customers in

any market. )89 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Last year the competitive company extended the production of

video-players. )90 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The court has considered the rights and liabilities of the parties to the

contract. )91 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The company is now distributing “Preference shares” among its

members. )92 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The treaty on Europian Union provides for the gradual creation of a

single currency. )93 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Every businessman must know the market situation in detail. )94 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Insurance will considerably reduce financial risks if you start a

business. )95 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Any man who has insured his life will receive an annuity for some

period. )96 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Two or more limited companies can form a consortium with a view

of profit. )97 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Mankind is now facing large possibilities and sharp contradictions. )98 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 1

)99 Translate from English: A contract implied in law is one in which an obligation is imposed upon a person, irrespective or even in violation of his intention to enter into a contract.

)100 Translate from Russian: Для служащих их трудовой коллектив является основным источником социального взаимодействия. Коммуникация, которая имеет место внутри коллектива, обеспечивает выход, выражение эмоций и удовлетворение социальных потребностей.

)101 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) Profit and loss. B) Покупать или продавать товары от своего собственного имени.

)102 Answer the question: What is the role of marketing research in business? Does it contribute to developing business or not?

)103 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The manager … (to work) at the report for two hours when the employees of the firm came.

)104 Insert article(s) where necessary: Do you know that ... sun is, in round numbers, 92.000.000 miles aways from ... Earth.

)105 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Let’s have a look ... the diary, what are the engagements ... today.

)106 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In all countries consumers always compete against producers and traders.

)107 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Last year the competitive company extended the production of video-players.

)108 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 2

Translate from English: A contract may be binding upon one party to the contract and not upon the other. Written contracts are mot always more binding than oral contracts.

)109 Translate from Russian: Покупательная способность - это то, что отделяет случайны наблюдателей от серьезных клиентов. Любой рынок нуждается в достаточном количестве последних, чтобы гарантировать производство товаров.

)110 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) A system of taxation. B) Контракты, касающиеся земли: закладные.

)111 Answer the question: What kind of society is Russia building now, in your opinion? )112 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: By December of next year the students of the University … (to learn) English for three years.

)113 Insert article(s) where necessary: In Russia the legislative power is exercised by ... Federal Assembly consisting of two Chambers: ... Council of Federation and ... State Duma.

)114 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: I didn’t spend a single penny ... building a new country cottage; it was built ... the expense of my father’s money.

)115 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Economic theory helps is understand how the world works.

)116 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Specialists are now classifying insurance by major categories: life, health and property-liability.

)117 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 3

Translate from English: A contract is a legally enforceable agreement between two or more parties regarding a specified act or thing.

)118 Translate from Russian: Товарная стратегия включает в себя решения относительно видов, ярлыков, торговых марок, упаковки, сертификатов, гарантий, разработки нового товара и цикла жизни товара.

)119 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To borrow money and to lend money. B) Договоры (контракты), имеющие и не имеющие исковую силу.

)120 Answer the question: Who owns the factors of production in capitalism? )121 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Terrestrial civilization … (not to survive) if the way of thinking doesn't change.

)122 Insert article(s) where necessary: … Great lakes on the border with … Canada are the largest and the deepest in ... USA.

)123 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Commincation is ... great importance ... organizational structure.

)124 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: New legislation in Britain usually starts in the House of Lords.

)125 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: My friend had mortgaged all his property to get the required amount of money.

)126 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 4

Translate from English: All contracts which are illegal or contrary to public policy are void. At common law they are contracts to commit crimes or civil wrongs, contracts directed against the welfare of friendly states, contracts involving unmorality, contracts tending to promote corruption in public life and some others.

)127 Translate from Russian: Существуют два основных раздела экономической теории: микроэкономика и макроэкономика. Микроэкономика исследует решения, которые принимают отдельные предприятия и потребители, а макроэкономика имеет дело с функционированием экономического комплекса всей страны.

)128 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To form a partnership. B) Сбор, накопление, сопоставление и анализ информации о рынке.

)129 Answer the question: Insurance is a major social institution which is essential to the functioning of any economy. Why do they call it so?

)130 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The secretary … (to type) a business letter for 30 minutes already.

)131 Insert article(s) where necessary: The USA is a presidential republic, the President of the country must be … natural citizen and … civilian.

)132 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation consists ... two chambers: the Counsil of Federation and the State Duma. Each of them is headed ... the speaker.

)133 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Barristers defend or prosecute in the higher courts.

)134 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: A total market must satisfy smaller, more homogeneous target markers.

)135 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 5

Translate from English: A contract of bailment arises when the owner of goods (the bailer) entrusts possession of them into the care of another (the bailee). Hiring is a particular example of a contract of bailment.

)136 Translate from Russian: При коммунизме факторы производства находятся под контролем правительства и все решения о производстве, распределении, потреблении и предпринимательской деятельности принимаются правительством.

)137 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To throw money about. B) Договор, имеющий законную силу.

)138 Answer the question: What problems is Contract law concerned with? What is its role in business?

)139 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The members of the Federal Assembly of Russia … (to elect) by the people for four years.

)140 Insert article(s) where necessary: Russia is one of ... largest countries in the world; its vast territory lies in the eastern part of ... Europe and the northern part of ... Asia.

)141 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: We have just placed a big order ... the goods with this firm; they have agreed ... a 3% discount.

)142 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Commercial banks will not lend money to companies that have no experience in business.

)143 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The company is now distributing “Preference shares” among its members.

)144 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 6

Translate from English: The first requisite of any contract is an agreement. At least two parties are required: one of them, the offerer, makes an offer which the other, offeree, accepts.

)145 Translate from Russian: При капитализме, или как его сейчас называют, системе частного предпринимательства, факторы производства находятся в частных руках, а экономические решения принимаются свободно, согласно рыночным законам спроса и предложения.

)146 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) Gross and net profit. B) Продавать товары с аукциона.

)147 Answer the question: What problems does normative economics study and for what purposes? )148 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: No students … (to pass) the exam in civil law yet.

)149 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... deep break is now between ... old and ... young and this factor cannot but influence the development of events in our country.

)150 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: ... capitalism industry and individuals use resources as they choose, ... communism nearly all resources are owned ... the govern ment.

)151 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Many business people realize now that there is strength in number.

)152 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The contract purchased by the employer will provide health care to employees and their families.

)153 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 7

Translate from English: The contract may come to an end and the parties discharged from their contractual obligations in the following ways: by breach and performance. But a breach of a term doesn't automatically terminate the contract.

)154 Translate from Russian: Промышленный рынок состоит из государственных и частных фирм, которые покупают товары для использования либо в производстве, либо для изготовления других товаров.

)155 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) A limited liability company and a joint stock corporation. B) Производить нужные товары и услуги.

)156 Answer the question: What types of modern economic systems do you know? Please, name them.

)157 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: My friend's father worries much about his son … (to study) at the University, he is not … (to satisfy) with his present marks.

)158 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... economics has deep roots in and close ties to ... social philosophy.

)159 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The centre of New York, Manhattan Island, was bought ... the Indians ... a handful of trinkets that cost twenty-four dollars.

)160 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In a capitalist system individuals accumulate savings and invest them in the tools of production.

)161 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: All companies were looking for new markets for their goods last winter.

)162 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 8

Translate from English: A contract which possesses all basic elements is said to be valid. The absence of an essential element will render the contract either void, avoidable or unenforceable.

)163 Translate from Russian: Корпорация - это вид искусственно образованного юридического лица с правом выступать в суде в качестве истца или ответчика. Она может состоять из одного или нескольких лиц, но в каждом случае у нее есть правовой статус в отличие от этих лиц.

)164 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To allocate money for various projects. B) Продавать товары частным образом.

)165 Answer the question: What Institution controls the stability of the national currency in Russia? What other functions does it perform?

)166 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: There used … (to be) a big plant in this street but it was knocked down.

)167 Insert article(s) where necessary: Wholesale and retail dealers stand between ... producer or the industry and ... consumer.

)168 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Most newspapers in Britain belong ... financial groups. They do not belong ... the government or political parties.

)169 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Enterpreneurship consists of risking the loss of money and time in the hope of making a profit.

)170 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Our trade partner has already received our annotation for the ordered electronic equipment.

)171 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 9

Translate from English: An offer is a proposal made by the offerer with a promise to be bound by that proposal if the offeree accepts the stated terms. An offer can end in a number of ways: by acceptance of the offer, by rejection of the offer, by revocation before acceptance, if it lapses etc.

)172 Translate from Russian: Ценовая стратегия занимается установлением цен на товары, которые могут принести прибыль. Решения по ценам зависят от того, как реагирует искомый рынок на низкую и высокую цену.

)173 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) Personal savings. B) Вступать в силу (о законе).

)174 Answer the question: What criteria are applied in judging economic outcomes in this or that country? Name them.

)175 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The money … (to spend) for social services creates more demand for the goods … (to produce) by businesses.

)176 Insert article(s) where necessary: Russia borders on many countries, such as ... Mongolia and ... China in the south-east, ... Finland and Norway in the north-west.

)177 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The land of Russia varies ... thick forests ... barren deserts, ... high picked mountains ... deep valleys.

)178 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: A lot of young people are practising martial arts in our country.

)179 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The insurance companies throughout the world employ more than 20 million people.

)180 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 10

Translate from English: The text of any international commercial contract usually begins with a preamble in which juridical names of the parties drafting a contract are given.

)181 Translate from Russian: В условиях системы частного предпринимательства люди конкурируют друг с другом. Конкуренция вместе с прибылью является краеугольным камнем этой системы.

)182 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To be a legal person with the right to sue and be sued. B) Расторгнуть договор (контракт).

)183 Answer the question: What is an economic system? What distinguishes one system from another?

)184 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Any businessman needs to speak to other people and he can do it by … (to use) the telephone.

)185 Insert article(s) where necessary: Great Britain lies on … Atlantic coast of Western Europe, separated from … France by only 21 miles of water.

)186 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Organizing is an operational managerial function which depends heavily ... the coordinated effort ... an entire organization.

)187 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: This bank had gone bankrupt a long ago after making a big loan to the small businesses.

)188 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Many people believe in Doomsday’s approaching. )189 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 11

Translate from English: contract law is a branch of civil law. It is important because it affects most aspects of any business operation. It is the legal foundation on which normal business dealings are conducted.

)190 Translate from Russian: Капитал - это в совокупности инструменты, оборудование, машины и здания, используемые для производства товаров и услуг. В этом случае капитал не относится просто к деньгам. Деньги сами по себе не производительны, но когда на них приобретают станки, пишущие машинки, краны и помещения для их установки, они становятся производительными.

)191 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) The end justifies the means. B) Обанкротиться.

)192 Answer the question: Who controls the operation and direction of basic industries in modern Russia?

)193 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Mr. Robertson, my companion, …(to own) now five big factories … (to produce) children's books and toys.

)194 Insert article(s) where necessary: Washington, …capital of the USA, is situated on both banks of … Potomac river.

)195 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Usually businessmen rent offices ... the centre or ... a prestige disctrict of the city.

)196 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: The members of a limited company have limited liability.

)197 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: In our days when the world has radically changed we, professors, should teach young people a new way of thinking.

)198 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 12

Translate from English: The most basic requirement of a contract is the presence of an agreement. It must have been entered voluntarily and involved "a genuine meeting of minds". The agreement may be invalidated by a number of factors - mistake, misrepresentation, duress and undue pressure.

)199 Translate from Russian: В сегодняшних условиях мирному сосуществованию государств нет разумной альтернативы. Или жить вместе, или погибнуть вместе - третьего не дано. Именно на этой идее основывается сегодня внешняя политика России.

)200 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To arrange financing through a commercial bank. B) Проводить в жизнь законы.

)201 Answer the question: Economics has deep roots in, and close ties to, social philosophy? Why? )202 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Two firms … (to strike) just a contract for the mutual supply of goods.

)203 Insert article(s) where necessary: In capitalism, if a company produces ... defective product or charges too much for ... product it is regected by consumers.

)204 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: I have not seen my friend ... ages. He was ... diplomatic service abroad.

)205 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Global contradictions affect the very foundations of the existence of civilization.

)206 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Sales representatives often visit the clientele of retail dealers.

)207 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 13

Translate from English: Generally, the law doesn't require complex formalities concerning the form of a contract. The majority of agreements are created either orally or implied from conduct. There are, however, some types of contracts which are needed in writing. They are contracts for sale of land, sale of goods on credit, for borrowing money and others.

)208 Translate from Russian: Менеджеры выполняют свою работу в организации. Они принимают решения, распределяют ресурсы и направляют деятельность других на достижение целей, поставленных перед организацией.

)209 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To buy smth at a reduced price. B) Поставлять товары на условиях продажи или возврата.

)210 Answer the question: They say that economics is a behavioral science? Why? )211 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Nobody before thought of … (to go) abroad and … (to look) for a job there. Now a lot of people … (to think) about it.

)212 Insert article(s) where necessary: With the creditor function, each bank, as institution, plays ... excludingly important part in the economy.

)213 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: Russia tries to base its relations ... other countries ... the principles of equal security and mutual benefit.

)214 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In the privarte enterprise system the right to profit attracts people to begin business.

)215 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: A court of law cannot enforce any agreement if it does not know what the agreement is.

)216 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 14

Translate from English: A contract of insurance is an agreement whereby an insurance company undertakes to compensate a person, called the insured, if the risk insured against does in fact occur.

)217 Translate from Russian: В настоящее время мы, как никогда раньше, нуждаемся в эффективных экономических подходах и механизмах, основанных на паритете, которые гарантировали бы рациональное использование природных ресурсов как общего достояния (собственности) человечества.

)218 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To form an unlimited company. B) Спрос и предложение.

)219 Answer the question: How can global problems, in your opinion, be solved now? On what principles?

)220 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: These goods … (to sell) in big volumes and by items.

)221 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... economic system is ... method society uses to allocate its resources to satisfy its needs.

)222 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The private enterprise system is founded ... four principles or rights: the right ... private property, freedom of choice, competion and profits.

)223 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Our manager left the message for his friend with the secretary.

)224 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: In Russia banks are now running a great business in stock markets.

)225 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 15

Translate from English: Consideration is the value or benefit that a party provides to the others with whom the contract is made. Consideration can take two forms: executed consideration and executory consideration. In any case consideration must not be illegal.

)226 Translate from Russian: Прибыль - это разница между общими доходами от бизнеса либо выручкой от продажи и общими затратами производства (издержками производства), включая оперативные расходы и налоги.

)227 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To cut down expenses. B) Акцептовать или отозвать оферту.

)228 Answer the question: What is a market? What kinds of markets do you know? )229 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: Why do people make businesses? They do it in the hope of …(to get) profits.

)230 Insert article(s) where necessary: The USA is … Federal Union of 50 states; each of them has … government.

)231 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The legislative power in Great Britain is exercised ... the Houses ... Parliament.

)232 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Yesterday our firm concluded a very profitable contract.

)233 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: By utilizing markering research marketers have acquired information on consumers.

)234 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 16

Translate from English: The mere fact of an agreement alone doesn't make a contract. In order for such an agreement to be valid and enforceable through the courts consideration must be furnished by each party to the contract.

)235 Translate from Russian: Акция - владение частью компании и, следовательно, правом на долю любого дохода, который она приносит (дивиденд).

)236 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To start a business with a sufficient capital. B) Стороны по контракту (договору).

)237 Answer the question: Why are wholesale and retail dealers called intermediaries in business? What is customers’ attitude towards them?

)238 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: In each House of English Parliament a bill … (to consider) in three stages … (to call) readings.

)239 Insert article(s) where necessary: ... Contract law is ... branch of ... civil law. It is ... legal foundation of all business dealings.

)240 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The new cars of Gorki plant are different ... what we had two years ago. We are very interested ... buying some of them.

)241 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Under the Contract law nobody can use another name and trademark by starting a new business.

)242 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: We have to decide this problem immediately. )243 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 17

Translate from English: The standards of proof are higher in a criminal action than in a civil action since the loser risks not only financial penalties but also being sent to prison (or. in some countries, executed).

)244 Translate from Russian: Экономическое развитие всех стран было бы ускорено осуществлением широкой программы разоружения. Более низкие уровни военной конфронтации создали бы благоприятную атмосферу для активизации экономического сотрудничества в интересах всех и всего.

)245 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) Small business; small-business owners. B) Стимулировать спрос на товары.

)246 Answer the question: Land, labor, capital and entrepreneurship are the main factors of production in any economic system. Who must they belong to, in your opinion?

)247 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The success of your business will depend on your (to plan and to motivate) the activities of the employees of the firm.

)248 Insert article(s) where necessary: In Russia ... bill becomes ... law if it is approved by both chambers of the Federal Assembly and signed by the President.

)249 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: All parents try to provide their children ... good education and good manners.

)250 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Sales experience greatly increases business people’s chances in the market.

)251 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Buying power will separate casual lookers from serious customers in any market.

)252 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 18

Translate from English: Public law is primarily concerned with the relationship between the state and its citizens. The main categories of public law are: crimes, constitutional law, international law.

)253 Translate from Russian: Экономическая теория является наукой о том, как люди и общества делают выбор, во что вкладывать дефицитные ресурсы среди конкурирующих возможностей. Сделанный ими выбор, суммируясь, превращается в общественный выбор.

)254 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To avoid excessive borrowings. B) Оспоримые и лишенные законной силы договоры (контракты).

)255 Answer the question: Advertisement is of much importance to modern business? What means of advertisement do you know?

)256 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: If there are appeals from magistrate's courts they always … (to hear) in the Crown Court unless they are on points of law.

)257 Insert article(s) where necessary: Russia is ... presidentail republic, it is one of ... leading powers in the world.

)258 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: As there was a long break ... the general manager and the work group of the firm, we didn’t make good profits last month.

)259 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Russia has never laid any territorial claims against any country in the world.

)260 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: English law does not recognize joint ownership of property as a business.

)261 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 19

Translate from English: A mere agreement is not yet a contract commonly, the term "Contract" is used by English lawyers to convey the idea of responsibility which arises from the voluntary engagement of one person to another.

)262 Translate from Russian: Все менеджеры имеют руководящую роль. Эта роль включает в себя: найм, тренинг, мотивацию и приучение служащих к дисциплине.

)263 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To lead a miserable existence. B) Повышать или понижать учетную ставку.

)264 Answer the question: What is contract? Please, give its definition and name its basic elements. )265 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: It is true that our director is suspected of … (to commit a crime).

)266 Insert article(s) where necessary: The United States is … very large country with different climatic regions; it is … land of rivers and lakes.

)267 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: London is noted ... its museums and art galleries

)268 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Businessmen pay much attention to the way their offices look like.

)269 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: The product strategy of this firm was including dicisions about new product development and the product life cycle.

)270 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

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Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 20

Translate from English: A mortgage is a method of borrowing money on the security of some property. Any kind of property (land, goods, insurance policies) may be the subject of a mortgage but, in practice, most mortgage advances are secured on land.

)271 Translate from Russian: Труд - совокупный человеческий ресурс(ы), необходимый для превращения сырьевых материалов в товары и услуги. Он включает в себя работу всех работников бизнеса - от высшего руководства до работников всех звеньев организационной структуры.

)272 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To sell at a profit. B) Осуществлять продажу и куплю облигаций и акций.

)273 Answer the question: How are economic decisions made under communism? )274 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The executive power in Russia belongs to the Government, or the Cabinet of Ministers, … (to head) by the Prime-Minister.

)275 Insert article(s) where necessary: The main mountain chains in Russia are ... Urals, ... Caucasus and ... Altai.

)276 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: The competitive firm profited ... our firm’s mistakes and sold all its goods ... a profit.

)277 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: In capitalism anyone who has the capital can embark on any business he or she chooses.

)278 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Our laboratory at St. Petersbourg is carrying out sampling and analysis of the imported goods.

)279 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

Экзаменационный билет по предмету АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК. БАЗОВЫЙ КУРС ДЛЯ НЕЛИНГВИСТОВ

Билет № 21

Translate from English: In most countries criminal and civil procedures are different. For example, criminal actions are nearly always started by the state. Civil actions, on the other hand, are usually started by individuals.

)280 Translate from Russian: Существуют различные способы ведения дела (бизнеса). Наиболее известные из них: создать (организовать) компанию с ограниченной или неограниченной ответственностью, образовать товарищество, или действовать как индивидуальный торговец. Каждый из этих способов имеет преимущества и недостатки.

)281 Provide the correct Russian and English equivalents: A) To be on sale. B) Контракты купли и продажи товаров: продажа товаров, обмен и бартер, поставка товаров в кредит.

)282 Answer the question: What ways to run a business do you know? Please, name them. )283 Use the right form(s) of the verb(s) in brackets: The government insists on (to impose) a new income tax.

)284 Insert article(s) where necessary: Under the concept of indemnity, which is central to ... insurance, insurance is merely to cover ... financial loss.

)285 Fill in the blanks with prepositions where necessary: In the USA legislative branch is exercised … the Congress and the executive branch is headed ... the President.

)286 Ask questions: a) to the subject of the sentence; b) to the predicate: Gorki plant producing cars has been operating in the market for ten years already.

)287 Use the phrase in the Passive Voice: Illegal considerations will not make binding contracts. )288 Please, write a few lines about yourself, your prospects, your future business.

Зав. кафедрой --------------------------------------------------

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