Ключи Аракин 3 курс , Другое из Английский язык. Московский государственный университет путей сообщения Императора Николая II (МГУПС имени Николая II)
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Ключи Аракин 3 курс , Другое из Английский язык. Московский государственный университет путей сообщения Императора Николая II (МГУПС имени Николая II)

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Кирилл Вахрушев vk.com/id12014052

Е.С. ТАТИЩЕВА

КЛЮЧИ С ВАРИАНТАМИ К УЧЕБНИКУ

«Практический курс английского языка» 3 курспод редакцией В. Д. АРАКИНА2-е издание, исправленоеАВТОР СКАНОВ: КИРИЛ ВАХРУШЕВМАГНИТОГОРСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕНЫЙУНИВЕРСИТЕТvk.com/id120140527 октября 201

Москва • ГИС • 2008

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ББК 81.2 Англ-923 Т 23

Татищева Е.С. Т 23 Ключи с вариантами к учебнику «Практический курс

английского языка» 3 курс под ред. В.Д. Аракина. 2-е издание, исправленное - М.: ГИС, 2008. - 295 с. КВК 978-5-8330-0233-9

В пособии представлены ключи ко всем упражнениям учебника, кроме творческих заданий. Во многих случаях переводыданы в нескольких возможных вариантах.

Пособие предназначено для студентов и преподавателейфилологических факультетов. Оно будет полезно всем, изучающиманглийский язык.

ISBN 978-5-8330-0233-9 © Е.С. Татищева, 2006 г. © Издательство «ГИС», 2008 г.

Кирилл Вахрушев vk.com/id12014052

ПРЕДИСЛОВИЕ

В пособии содержатся ключи практически ко всем грамматическим упражнениям и ко всем упражнениям из основной части учебника английского языка под ре­ дакцией В Д. Аракина.

Владение данными ключами избавит вас от необхо­ димости «перерывать» словари и терзаться сомнения­ ми: правильно я перевел, перефразировал и т.п. или нет? Конечно, обратиться к данному пособию следует лишь после того, как будут самостоятельно сделаны упражне­ ния. Ключ - это не шпаргалка, а всего лишь хороший способ проверить себя самого до того, как сдать домаш­ нюю работу преподавателю. Не удивляйтесь, если среди нескольких вариантов одно слово или фразеологизм выделены жирным шрифтом: они не лучше, а всего лишь взяты из активной лексики данного урока.

Все полезные замечания и предложения, которые вы пришлете в издательство, будут учтены в следующих из­ даниях.

Успехов вам в учебе!

Автор

Кирилл Вахрушев vk.com/id12014052

Contents

ESSENTIAL COURSE.................................................... 5 Unit o n e ......................................................................... 5 Unit two ........................................................................ 29 Unit th re e ...................................................................... 54 Unit f o u r ........................................................................ 84 Unit five ........................................................................ 107 Unit six ......................................................................... 140 Unit seven ..................................................................... 168 Unit e ig h t...................................................................... 201 GRAMMAR EXERCISES............................................... 226

Кирилл Вахрушев vk.com/id12014052

ESSENTIAL COURSE

■ П Н П М Н И Н UNITONE Н П М Н M

Exercise 1, p. 7 Possible variants 1. This is more like a word for word translation than a liter­

ary one. 2. It is more like a fable than a fa iry tale. 3. The fabric looks more like cotton than viscose. 4. Ann looks more like a schoolgirl than a college student. 5. With this hairdo she looks more like a boy than a girl. 6. We walked round the village for an hour or so. 7 .1 stayed with my friends for a fortnight or so. 8.1 lived in the town for three years or so. 9 .1 am not through with the book yet. I’ve read only 50 pages or so. 10. Since every­ one is present, I think it is an excellent/wonderful/splendidopportunity to announce that fa n e and I have ju st got engaged. 11. We are through with our work. Isn’t it a wonderful opportu­ nity to go to some nice bar and cut loose? (оторваться по пол­ ной). 12. We’ve been looking for her house for more than an hour. I should/would never have thought that her place wouldbe so difficult to find. 13. There seems to be no end to dirty clothes. I should never have thought that one man could soil som any shirts, vests and underpants in so short a time. 14. The more we listened to him, the more he convinced us that hiscourse o f action was ju st the ticket (разг. как раз то, что нуж­ но). 15. The more John looked at her, the less he liked what hesaw. 16. The more I think about her decision, the less I agreewith it. 17. The more indignant Andrew became, the more hestuttered. 18. The longer we waited, the more im patient we felt. 19- W ho’ll go to the baker’s? There is no bread left. 20. I’m going to the stationer’s. There is no paper left. 21. Why go shopping? - We have nofood left. 22. We needn’t hurry. There is plenty o f timeleft. 23. Hurry up. We have no time left. 24. Why not put the table

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near the window? - There seems to be no room left. 25. Where will you put the bookcase? There seems to be no very little spaceleft in room.

Exercise 2, p. 8 Possible variants 1. I should/would never have thought that looking after

a child was so tiresome. 2.1 should/would never have thought thatwriting a summary o f this article might cost so much effort. 3.1 should/would never have thought that scrubbing a sootysaucepan clean might turn out to be such a trying job. 4. Theharder he worked, the bigger wages he earned. 5. The more hethought over the problem, the less he knew what to do. 6. Themore we stayed at the “Holiday Inn”, the more we liked the place. 7. That won't do. You shouldn’t be so careless. 8. That won't do. You’ll have to do everything all over again. 9. That won't do. You treat the matter too lightly. 10. That won't do. Your answer is wrong.

Exercise 3, p. 8 Possible variants 1. If only the weather were better! - Oh, yes! Then we would

go on a walking tour fo r a week or so. 2. In two days I’ll finish my exams. - Oh, thank God! It will be a splendid opportunity to goaway on holiday and swim in the nice warm sea and bake in thesun fo r hours on end. 3 .1 shan’t be through with my work before the weekend, I’m afraid. - That won't/will never do. You'll have tofinish it by Thursday at the latest, or you'll be fired. 4. How long will the job take? - How should I know? I would never havethought that writing a book about my adventures in Africa wouldbe so difficult. (How should I know? The more I work, the morework there seems to be left.) 5. We’re going there on Friday. - Thenwe m ust hurry! There's very little time left. 6. She may come yet. Let’s wait a bit. - That won’t do. We’ve already been waiting fo r two hours or so. 7. He says it was your fault. - Oh, does he? I shouldnever have thought that he would tell such a blatant lie! (I wouldnever have thought him capable o f such a barefaced lie!) 8. How long shall I stay here? - Why, until you are well again, my dear.I suppose your recovery will take ten days or so.

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Exercise 5, pp. 8 -9 A. In spring on our way back to Moscow we happened to

pass (by) a small town. It was more like a big village than a town, all its houses were smothered in roses and it seemed to us so lovely that we couldn’t help stopping there (couldn’t keep from stopping there/couldn’t help but stop there). I should never have thought that a walk round (about/around) a small provin­ cial town could be such a pleasure. We walked around the town for 3 hours or so, and the more we looked at that fairy-like nook, the more we admired it. But there wasn’t much time left/there was very little time left, and we had to hurry to Moscow.

B. Last year my wife and I had to take a holiday in winter. We decided that it was a splendid opportunity to redecorate/reno­ vate our flat. After two days’ work it looked more like a ware­ house full of broken furniture than a flat. “That won’t do (That will never do)”, my wife said. “We’d better hire house painters and have it repainted (have it redecorated).”

ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY Exercise 1, p. 16

VOCABULARY NOTES 1. gossip n 1) (неисчисляемое сущ.) болтовня, разговоры;

сплетня (сплетни), слух (слухи), россказни, толки; светская хроника (в газете)

a gossip column - отдел светской хроники (е газете,журнале')

a gossip writer - репортер отдела светской хроники Don’t believe all the gossip you hear. - He всяким слухам

можно верить. 2) (исчисляемое сущ) сплетник, сплетница; болтун, бол­

тунья the town gossips - городские сплетницы (кумушки) to gossip vi(over/about smth.) - 1) сплетничать о чем-л.;

2) болтать, беседовать о чем-л. to spread rumours - распространять слухи Aren’t you ashamed of gossiping over his affairs? - Неужели

тебе не стыдно сплетничать о его делах? 2. w ind [w aind] (w ound [w aund]) vt/i 1) крутить, вертеть

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to wind the handle - вертеть ручку; 2) наматывать, обматывать, мотать to wind wool - сматывать шерсть 3) виться, извиваться The path winds through the wood. - Тропинка вьется че­

рез лес. 4) заводить (часы и т.п.); 5) to wind up - заканчивать(ся);

оказаться в каком-л. состоянии или положении It’s time he could wind up his speech. - Пора бы ему закон­

чить речь. to w ind smb. round on e’s little finger - вить из кого-л.

веревки (N.B. перевод «обвести кого-л. вокруг пальца» не­ правилен)

3. peel vt/i 1) (oranges, apples, potatoes, bananas etc.) чис­ тить, очищать от кожуры (апельсины, яблоки, картошку, ба­ наны и т.п.); 2) (тж. off) слезать, облезать, лупиться, шелу­ шиться

The skin peels off the nose or face when a person gets sun­ burnt. - Когда человек получает солнечный ожог, у него сле­ зает кожа с носа или лица.

The wallpaper is peeling off. - Обои отстают от стен, p eel п - кожура, кожица, шелуха orange (potato) peel - кожура апельсина (картошки) candied peel - цукаты, засахаренная кожура апельсина,

лимона и т.п. 4. scrape vt/i - 1) скрести, скоблить; соскребать, соскаб­

ливать I scraped the skin off the vegetables. - Я соскоблил с ово­

щей кожицу. 2) очистить, отскоблить She scraped the door (down) before painting it again. - Она

отскоблила дверь от старой краски прежде чем покрасить ее заново. (Она соскоблила с двери старую краску прежде чем покрасить ее заново.)

Не scraped his boots clean before coming into the house. - Прежде чем войти в дом, он счистил с сапог всю грязь. 3) (on, against) задеть

a chair scraping on the floor - стул, скребущий по полу Не scraped his chair against the wall. - Он задел стулом за

стену. 8

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4) (по) царапать Не scraped his knee when he fell. - Упав, он оцарапал колено. 5) еле-еле успевать в учебе She just scraped through the examination - Она едва-едва

сдала экзамен. to scrape a living - с трудом зарабатывать на жизнь; to scrape u p /together - еле-еле наскрести (особ, денег) 5. steady adj - 1) прочный, твердый, устойчивый a steady foundation - прочный фундамент, прочное ос­

нование to make a chair or table steady - укрепить (прочно устано­

вить) стул или стол The chair is steady enough. - Стул достаточно устойчив. syn. firm - твердый, прочный firm ground - суша firm foundation - прочный фундамент, прочное основание firm steps - твердые шаги firm muscles - упругие мускулы 2) надежный и серьезный, положительный a steady person - надежный и серьезный человек, поло­

жительный человек 3) постоянный, непрерывный, устойчивый, ровный steady wind - ровный ветер steady rain - постоянный (непрерывный) дождь steady growth - устойчивый рост steady increase - непрерывное увеличение steady progress - непрерывное улучшение, постоянные

успехи steadily - непрерывно, постоянно It has been raining steadily since morning. - С утра непре­

рывно льет дождь. to steady vt/i- укреплять, делать прочным, придавать ус­

тойчивость; укрепляться, становиться прочным, приходить в устойчивое состояние

With an effort he steadied the boat. - Сделав усилие, он привел лодку в равновесие (выровнялась).

The boat soon steadied again. - Вскоре лодка опять при­ шла в равновесие/выровнялась.

6. m ess п - беспорядок, путаница, хаос, бардак; грязь; 9

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to be in a mess - 1) быть в беспорядке, вверх дном; 2) быть в грязи, быть грязным; 3) быть в трудном, неприятном положении;

The room was in a mess. - Комната была в беспорядке, to m ake a m ess o f sm th. - испортить (провалить) дело,

напутать, расстроить (планы), напортачить; You’ve made a mess of the job. - Вы провалили дело. (Вы

запороли работу.) to get in to a m ess - попасть в неприятное положение

(в беду), «влипнуть»; You’ll get into a mess if you are not more careful. - Если ты

не будешь осторожнее, то сильно влипнешь. 7. crack vt/i1) трескаться; вызывать растрескивание A vase may crack if washed in boiling water. - Если вазу

мыть кипятком, она может треснуть. You’ve cracked the window. - Вы разбили окно. Теперь в нем

трещина. 2) щелкать, производить шум to crack a whip - щелкнуть бичом His rifle cracked and the deer fell dead. - Он выстрелил из

ружья, и олень упал замертво. to crack a joke - отпустить (отколоть) шутку crack п - трещина; щель; треск, щелканье (бича), удар

(грома) a wide (small) crack - широкая (узкая) трещина (щель,

расселина) a loud (sudden) crack - громкий (внезапный) треск The walls are covered with cracks. - Стены потрескались. I heard a crack as if of a branch. - Я услышал какой-то

треск, как будто хрустнула ветка. 8.contribute vt/i - 1) жертвовать, вносить (деньги и т.п.), to contribute time - уделять время; 2) делать вклад (в науку и т.п.); способствовать, содейст­

вовать, The development of friendly ties with other countries con­

tributes to mutual understanding of their peoples. - Развитие дружественных связей с другими странами способствует взаимопониманию их народов.

3) сотрудничать (в газете, журнале) to contribute articles to a wall-newspaper - писать статьи

для стенгазеты 10

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to contribute a poem to a newspaper - написать стихотво­ рение для газеты

contribution п (to) - 1) пожертвование, взнос (денеж­ ный и т.п.); 2) вклад (перен.)

Montmorency brought a dead water-rat as his contribution to the dinner. - Монморенси принес дохлую водяную крысу (ондатру) в качестве своего вклада в приготовление обеда (внося тем самым свой вклад в приготовление обеда).

9. spirit п- 1) душа, дух; 2) тенденция, общее направле­ ние, общий характер; 3) дух, сущность, истинный смысл; моральная сила, энергия, решительность

the spirit of the army - дух войск the spirit of the times (age) - дух времени (эпохи) the spirit of the law - дух закона to take smth. in the right (wrong) spirit - воспринять что-

л. (напр., критику) правильно (неправильно) to show a proper spirit - проявить себя с хорошей стороны That’s the right spirit! - Молодец! He found himself in conflict with the spirit of the time. - Он

обнаружил, что его образ мыслей вошел в противоречие с духом времени.

4) живость, горячность, задор, энергия, смелость, жар, рвение

Put a little more spirit into your work. - Постарайся рабо­ тать с большим рвением.

Не spoke with spirit. - Он говорил с жаром. 5) spirits - настроение to be in high (low) spirits - быть в хорошем (плохом, по­

давленном) настроении His spirits rose (fell or sank). - Его настроение улучшилось

(ухудшилось). to raise sm b.’s spirits - поднять кому-л. настроение to be out o f spirits - быть не в духе; You seem to be out of spirits today. - Ты, похоже, сегодня

не в духе. 10. taste п - 1) вкус The doctor prescribed her some pills with a bitter taste. -

Врач прописал ей таблетки, горькие на вкус. I don’t care for this bread, it has a very bitter taste. - Мне не

нравится этот хлеб, у него очень горький вкус. 11

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I dislike the taste of olives. - Мне не нравится вкус оливок. 2) вкус, склонность You may choose any flowers to your taste here. - Здесь вы

можете выбрать любые цветы по своему вкусу. There is no accounting for tastes. (Tastes differ.) - О вкусах

не спорят. (У каждого свой вкус.) 3) вкус, понимание The room was furnished in good taste. - Комната была об­

ставлена со вкусом. They say she dresses in poor taste. - Говорят, они безвкус­

но одевается. I was ashamed of you, your jokes were in very bad taste. -

Мне за тебя было стыдно, ты очень неуместно (бестактно) шутил.

taste vt/i- 1) пробовать, отведать; чувствовать вкус, раз­ личать на вкус

There we found some strange foods and made up our minds to taste them all. - Там мы обнаружили несколько незнако­ мых продуктов и решили попробовать их все.

Can you distinguish types of apples by tasting them? - Вы можете различить разные сорта яблок на вкус?

I have a bad cold and cannot taste anything. - У меня силь­ ная простуда, и я (совершенно) не чувствую вкуса пищи.

2) иметь вкус This orange tastes bitter. - Этот апельсин горек на вкус

(горчит). 3) вкусить, познакомиться, познать на своем опыте There she tasted the joys of privacy. - Там она познала ра­

дости уединения. tasteful adj - 1) имеющий тонкий вкус; 2) сделанный со

вкусом a tasteful person - человек со вкусом a tasteful work of art - изящ ное произведение искус­

ства tasteless adj1) безвкусный, пресный; 2) безвкусный, дур­

ного вкуса; имеющий плохой вкус; бестактный The potatoes were tasteless without salt. - Без соли кар­

тошка была безвкусной.

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WORD COMBINATIONS AND PHRASES in early June - в начале июня to put up at some place - остановиться в каком-л. месте

(в гостинице и т.п.) to roam the woods/through the woods (about a place) -

бродить по лесу (по месту/городку/деревне) to get settled - устроиться odds and ends - 1) остатки, обрезки, обрывки, осколки;

2) разрозненные вещи, всякий хлам, всякая всячина to be the size of smth. - быть размером с какой-л.

предмет the rest of the evening - остаток вечера half a dozen, half a peck* of peas, half a pork pie, half a tin of

salmon - полдюжины, полпека гороха, половина пирога со свининой, полбанки консервированного лосося

to stir smth. up - помешивать, размешивать, перемеши­ вать что-л.

to add smth. to smth. - добавить, прибавить что-л. к чему-л. to empty smth. into a pot - вылить (высыпать) что-л. в ко­

телок to thicken the gravy - сделать соус погуще with an earnest and thoughtful air - с серьезным и задум­

чивым видом to be on the safe side - на всякий случай

Exercise 4, p. 14 1. In early May the village is really fairy-like with all its

houses sm othered in roses. 2. I’d like to put up at this small inn for a week or so. 3. The whole day w e roam ed (about) the countryside, and in the evening we had a nice rest. 4. It turned out to be quite late when at last we got settled. 5 .1 never saw such a thing as a stew for getting rid of all the odds and ends of food. 6. Choose the books you need and take the rest to the library. 7. This is a rare edition: the book is th e size o f a matchbox, but the print is very clear. 8. We have half a tin of potted pork left, let’s add it to th e stew (le t’s em p ty it in to th e stew ). 9- Add som e m ore oatm ealto th e porridge and stir it up thoroughly with a spoon.

' a peck = 2 gallons = 8,81 litres

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10. He may have forgotten about our arrangement, le t’s ( ;ill him to be o n th e safe side.

Exercise 5, pp. 14-15 1.1 would love to go to the south in early June, when every­

thing is smothered in flowers, and roam (about) the mountains. 2. We decided that in St. Petersburg we would put up at :i hotel and stay there for a week or so. 3. We got settled quickly, and it turned out that we had plenty/a lot of time till evening. 4. When we had got settled at last, we were so tired that none of us want­ ed to go anywhere. 5. These odds and ends of paper are hardly any use. (I don’t think these odds and ends of paper are any use.) 6. I would/should never have thought that one could make a dress of/out of/from these odds and ends of fabric. 7. My room is the size o f yours/the same size as yours, but somehow (but for some reason) it looks smaller. 8. I’ve read only half the article, but it seems to me that it has little to do with the subject you’re interested in. 9. The train arrives only in half an hour, let’s roam (about) the town. 10. Ellen stirred up the salad, tasted it and decided to add another half a jar of pickled cucumbers. 11. This tinned/canned/potted meat is good. Empty half a tin/can into the stew. 12. Add some more flour to the gravy to thicken it. 13. He cracks jokes/makes jokes/jokes with such an earnest and thoughtful air, that one can’t help laughing/that one can’t keep from laughing. 14. To be on the safe side we had better not touch on/upon this matter/question today.

Exercise 8, p. 15 to roam (about), a place; for an hour or so; to put up some­

where for the night; to have plenty of time; a splendid opportu­ nity; a fascinating idea; to make a fire; quite an undertaking; to turn out; to be the size of smth.; steadily; absurd; to overhaul; to pick out; to thicken the gravy; to be on the safe side; hackneyed things; not to matter

Exercise 9, p. 15 сказочный утолок - a fairy-like nook; утопать в розах - to be smothered in roses; настоящая сельская гостиница - a veritable picture of

a country inn; 14

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сельские новости - village politics; причудливые* комнаты - quaint rooms; решетчатые окна - latticed windows; шикарный ужин - a slap-up supper; по части стряпни - in the way of cooking; собирать хворост - to gather wood; беззаботность - light-heartedness Exercise 10, pp. 15-16 1. to gossip over village politics - to talk about the details o f

other village inhabitants' behaviour and private lives, oftenincluding information that is not true. 2. to try a good slap-up supper - to try to cook a splendid supper. 3. Our light-hearted- ness was gone. - We no longer fe lt cheerful/Our cheerfulness wasgone./We no longer fe lt care-free. 4. Then we struck. - Then wewent on strike./Then we said that we wouldn't scrape the potatoesany more./Then we refused to work any more. 5. We should require the rest of the evening for scraping ourselves. - Weshould need the remainder o f the evening fo r getting rid o f thepotato scrapings that cover us from head to toe. 6. We overhauled the hampers. - We carefully/thoroughly exam ined the contents o fthe hampers. 7. All the odds and ends and the remnants. - All theleftovers. 8. Every little helped. - Every am ount o f food howeverinsignificant might be o f some use. 9- George stood for precedent. - George stood fo r using the existing customs and form er deci­ sions as a guide to the present action. 10. He would rather be on the safe side and not try experiments. - He would rather not takechances/not take risks. (He ivould rather play it safe and not try’experiments.)

Exercise 1, p. 16 - see above.

Exercise 2, p. 16 A. 1. По вечерам Барбара всласть сплетничала с сосед­

кой, стоя у забора, разделяющего их сады. 2. Где сплетни, там и ложь. 3. «Я решила на какое-то время пригласить ее сюда и отдать на растерзание здешним сплетницам», - ска­ зала Беатрис. 4. «Ну и кто теперь сплетничает?» - сказала ку-

‘ В учебнике ошибка: quaint - unusual and attractive, especially in an old- fashioned way: прелестные старомодные комнаты

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зина Рэчел. 5. Играя под присмотром матери, она чунсп« >ва- ла себя заводной игрушкой. 6. В купе становилось душно. Я опустил оконную раму и вынул свою трубку. 7. Я заплела ее волосы в косу и уложила их короной на голове. 8. Если бы можно было очистить ее от всей ее фальши и неискреш юс- ти подобно тому, как очищают от шелухи лук! 9- Я видел его очень ясно, от довольной улыбки, которая играла на его ли­ це, до шелушащейся от солнечного ожога лысой макушки. 10. Она тщательно отломила от сука все ветки, так что полу­ чилась почти ровная палка, а затем на ходу дочиста содрала с нее всю кору. 11. Соскреби грязь с башмаков этим старым ножом. 12. «Привет!» - крикнул Ник и, отколупнув от саней пригоршню снега, бросил в Джорджа снежком, который угодил тому прямо в ухо. 13- Все обыденные звуки: царапа­ нье стульев по полу, кашель - эхом отдавались в его мозгу, доводя его до исступления. 14. Ты должен найти в себе хоть немного смелости, хоть немного отваги. 15. Переулок был до того узок, что по нему едва ли протиснулся бы навьючен­ ный осел. 16. Было так скользко, что если бы он не помог мне удержаться на ногах, я бы упал. 17. Туман волнами/клу­ бами беспрерывно накатывался на нас, и было очень труд­ но разглядеть, на каком именно участке дороги мы нахо­ димся. 18. Она снова вперила в меня свой характерный при­ стальный взгляд. 19. Она услышала мерное биение своего сердца, которое, казалось, говорило ей: «Встань! Выйди! Сделай же что-нибудь!» 20. Когда он поднял глаза, оказалось, что взгляд у него необычайно пристальный и пытливый. 21. Том был обаятелен и не обременен совестью/бесприн- ципен. Он имел постоянный доход, живя за счет друзей, а друзей он заводил легко.

В. 1. Он чувствовал, что начинает постепенно вылезать из ямы, в которую скатился (из болота, в котором увяз). 2. Я никогда и нигде еще не видел подобной грязи и беспо­ рядка. 3-Я действительно прогулялся в четверг за городом и явился домой, весь заляпанный грязью. 4. «Вчера я видел­ ся с отцом, - сказал Бен. - Надеялся, что он даст мне по­ следний шанс и выручит меня из этой беды». 5. Кучер щелк­ нул бичом, и лошади понеслись прочь. 6. Она чуть-чуть приподняла окно и положила на лоб Дотти смоченное хо­ лодной водой полотенце. 7. Занавески шевелились из-за

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сквозняка, проникавшего сквозь щели в оконной раме. 8. Они с Джоном смеялись и шутили. 9. Берт несколько ми­ нут разглядывал его сквозь щель в двери, а потом вышел во двор. 10. Дерево громко треснуло и упало. Вокруг’ снова во­ царилась тишина. 11. Великолепные условия, обеспечен­ ные для проведения эксперимента, очень способствовали его успеху. 12. Поскольку она была честна, все еще больше уважали ее здравый смысл. 13. Его меланхолия была под стать меланхолии Брэйси, что, несомненно, помогало им еще лучше понимать друг друга (что, несомненно, способ­ ствовало их взаимопониманию). 14. Бомбежки не смогли ни подавить боевой дух нации, ни подорвать экономику страны. 15. По-видимому, его мечты и фантазии нисколько не ухудшили ни его настроения, ни аппетита. 16. Девочка была здоровой и резвой, и не было никакой возможности заставить ее сидеть тихо. 17. Он налил в бокал воды и осто­ рожно пригубил ее: вкус был ужасный. 18. Никто бы не смог отрицать, что у нее есть вкус, хотя порой и немного при­ чудливый. 19. Я могу еще раз принести извинения за свои бестактные слова. 20. Билл подумал: «Доведется ли мне еще когда-нибудь отведать свежих апельсинов?» 21. Если вы не соскребете пыль, вся пища, которую вы положите в рот, бу­ дет отдавать пылью (будет иметь вкус пыли). 22. Некоторые книги надо всего лишь попробовать на вкус, другие - про­ глотить, но есть и такие - их немного - которые следует разжевать и переварить, 23. Ее красивая фигура и со вкусом подобранная одежда всегда привлекали внимание. 24. Она маленькими глотками пила безвкусный, не приносящий бодрости чай.

Exercise 3, р. 18 А. 1. The Browns were glad to drop of an evening for a cock­

tail and some gossip. 2. He chuckled at the thought of how suc­ cessfully they had deceived the gossips. 3. Ann wound Tom round her little finger. 4. It’s time he wound up his speech. 5. She hates peeling potatoes. 6. Put the towel round your shoulders or you’ll burn and your skin will peel (off). 7. The silly boy is always getting into a mess/into scrapes. 8. Scrape the soles of your shoes thoroughly/Scrape the mud off the soles of your shoes before you go into the cottage. 9. It took the boys much time and effort

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to sc rape up/scrape together the money they needed. 10. He is ;i steady young man. 11. He turned out to be a steady worker. I 2. He was not bad-looking and had a good steady job. 13. The table was unsteady, as one of its legs was broken. 14. The rain is pouring down steadily.

B. 1. After he had finished packing, the room was in a mess. 2. But for your carelessness you w ouldn’t have got into a mess/scrape. 3. But even he must have known that he had made a mess of the job. 4. There is a crack in the vase. 5. He’s fond of cracking jokes. 6. Poor as they were, the workers were ready to contribute to their common cause. 7. He regularly con­ tributes poems to our newspaper. 8. He came to lunch in partic­ ularly high spirits. 9. He did the job with such spirit that he accomplished a shining success. 10. After supper everyone was in high spirits/Supper raised everyone’s spirits. 11. When he is ill he does not taste food for days. 12. The soup tastes of onions. 13. There is no accounting for tastes. 14. What do you know of his tastes? 15. After our quarrel even my favourite dish seemed tasteless/tasted awful.

Exercise 4, pp. 18-20 A. 1. Charles had planned to see Arthur Brown in Hall and on

the side pick up the latest rumours. 2. You meet other boats there and rumours, often groundless about the people living or work­ ing on the river are exchanged. 3. He had mentioned that George’s behaviour and private life were being much talked about. 4. He gave people the latest rumours about others’ affairs in the same way that he gave them drinks. 5. Bess was a person who habitually spread rumours of an intimate nature and noth­ ing could make her mend her ways. 6. Bant marvelled how quickly rumours of an intimate nature traveled/circulated. 7. At last the town busybodies stopped prattling about her private life. 8. Next day, while he was at its last office bringing to an end its last tattered affairs, I telephoned Mrs. Skelton. 9. Don’t you see that she can make anyone do whatever she likes? 10. The paint on the wall was coming off in thin strips, and a banister leg was loose. 11. The wallpaper came off in long, broad ribbons. 12. Sitting down and taking off her gloves, Jane took a mirror out of her bag and looked at herself. 13- It was a most difficult job to remove all the rust (by firmly pushing something edged

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across the surface again and again). 14. The lazy boy was lucky to squeeze through the examination: he got a very low grade but it allowed him to pass. 15. John had managed with difficulty to save enough money to pay for his first year at college. 16. I ran the risk of getting into some unpleasant situations. 17. “If you don’t take care, your friend will get you into serious trouble some day,” said Carrie. 18. My father and I picked all the change out of our pockets and managed to collect enough to pay for a breakfast at a diner. 19. Be careful!/Look out!/Watch out! There is a broken step here. 20. He often visited their home. 21. He said in a shaky/faltering voice, “I understand, Mrs. Evans.” 22. Caroline repeated the ejaculation, but this time her voice shook a little. 23. The snow was falling continuously/non-stop out of a tawny sky. 24. He clutched at her to keep from falling. 25. He is a staunch fighter for peace. 26. “No”, said Mary in a firm voice, “he never comes here.” 27. He moved forward in the dark­ ness with faltering steps. 28. I’m a bit of a Don Juan, my dear, you need someone more serious and dependable. 29 He has got a character and a regular job, and he’s no fool. 30. “I’m not going,” was his invariable answer (he always answered) to all her threats and requests. 31. He kept losing weight.

В. 1. You’ve bungled the job/you’ve blown it. I wish you had refused to do it. 2. Why did you leave all the dirty dishes and rem­ nants/leftovers of food on the table? 3. Nothing to do but clean up the broken eggs - and such nice eggs they were. 4. “Now we’ve got to clean everything up”, he said. “All I hope is that it doesn’t take too long.” 5 .1 imagined how badly he would do the job - it was inevitable that he would botch it up/blow it. 6. It is very difficult for foreigners to pronounce this word properly. 7. He is a person not easily understood or overcome or influ­ enced. 8. He is fond of making jokes, but they are not to my lik­ ing. 9. A winded horse, a broken bow and a foe forcibly turned friend cannot be relied upon. (Надсаженный конь, надлом­ ленный лук да замиренный друг равно ненадежны - посло­ вица). 10. If one pours some liquid into a vessel that has an opening, however thin, caused by breaking, it will leak out. 11. He made some invaluable scientific discoveries. 12. Mr. Winfield listened and soon understood that he was expected to take part in the conversation. 13. M. Sholokhov wrote quite a lot of world-class fiction. 14. My own earliest boating recollection is

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I I of five of us paying three pence apiece (three pence each) tak­

ing a boat on the lake. 15. This is not the right attitude i<> begin some new work with. (This is not the right frame of mind to begin some new work in.) 16. We found him alone, spent and depressed. 17. He immediately cheered up when the door swung open and he saw Saundra on the threshold. 18. Despite all her troubles she too seemed to be enjoying the occasion. 19. Can you feel the flavour of pepper in this soup? 20.1 don’t think that I ever ate pumpkin pie as good as hers. 21. His likes and dislikes did not seem to have changed. 22. The house was handsome, he admitted, but it wasn’t to his liking/but it wasn’t the sort of house he could like. 23. “Your understanding of brandy, Doctor, is much better than your understanding of music,” said Chris. 24. After that, having taken a liking to the water/having taken to the water, I did a good deal of rafting.

Exercise 5, p. 20 peel - scrape

1. New potatoes are nice to the taste but I hate scraping them. 2. I’ve boiled potatoes in their jackets/skins, will you scrape/peel them?

steady - firm 1. The chair was not stead y because one of its legs was bro­

ken. 2. The oak-tree stood firm in the earth. 3. Mr. Convoy was a steady customer at the bookshop. 4. His decision was firm.

crack - break 1. The cup w as/had cracked, but the pieces still held togeth­

er. 2. The ice cracked and then broke under his feet. 3- Brittle things break easily.

taste - flavour 1. The peach has a peculiarly fine flavour. 2. The fruit looked

tempting, but it turned out to have an unpleasant taste. 3-1 like the lemon flavour of the sweets.

Exercise 6, p. 20 заниматься сплетнями - to gossip; to talk gossip; заводить часы - to wind (up) a watch (a clock); сматывать шерсть в клубок - to wind wool; задеть локтем за что-л. - to scrape one’s elbow on/against

smth.; работать без передышки - to work steadily;

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внести вклад во что-л. - to make a contribution to smth., to contribute to smth.;

дух времени - the spirit of the times (age); работать с огоньком - to work with spirit; быть горьким на вкус - to taste bitter, to have a bitter taste; обвести кого-л. вокруг пальца - to lead smb. down the gar­

den path, to take smb. for a ride, to lead smb. a (pretty) dance, to put/slip one over/on smb.

(o f ladies only in the meaning of вить из кого-л. веревки - to wind/twist/wrap smb. round one’s little finger)

Example: Террористы обвели власти вокруг пальца. - The terrorists put one over the authorities.

попасть в беду - to get into trouble (in to a m ess/a scrape); быть замешанным в каком-л. деле - to be mixed up in

smth.; о вкусах не спорят - tastes differ/there is no accounting for

tastes; в хорошем вкусе - in good taste, tastefully Exercise 7, p. 20-22 A. 1. To be on the safe side don’t talk about these affairs,

some people are fond of gossiping about/over others’ affairs. 2. “I think/To my m ind/In my opinion/I believe/It seems to me there aren’t many gossips in our block of flats (Brit)/apart- ment hous (us), we are lucky/we are in luck,” said Anne. 3. “I would never have thought that Jane would circulate gossip/would gossip,” Kate said. “Just don’t listen to her,” Dotty answered. 4. Let’s go/climb up this winding staircase to the top of the tower. 5. What are you doing? It w on’t do. (It will never do.) How can one wind off wool like this/in this way? 6. No one could take a man for a ride/Nobody could lead a man down the garden path like little Polly. 7. Put all these odds and ends (all these little things) in a bag and wind a (piece of) rope/string round/around it several times. 8. Don’t peel the bark off the birch-tree, you’ll hurt it. 9. You shouldn’t lie in the sun so long, your skin will peel (off), and anyway it does more harm than good. 10. Why are you peeling the potatoes? For salad it’s better to boil them unpeeled/without peeling/in their jackets/skins. 11. Kate sometimes managed to find a tem­ porary job but she still couldn’t scrape a living. 12. Something

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has stuck to my sole and I can’t scrape it off, it must be tar. 13. Look out! Don’t scrape your arm against/on the nail. 14. Don’t scrape your fork on your plate, please, I hate this sound. 15. He just scraped through the examinations but I think he has real­ ized that one shouldn’t waste so much time. 16. It’s quite a decent holiday centre but we had very bad luck with the weather (but the weather was really nasty): it rained steadily from morning till night. 17. At that moment I couldn’t help adm iring/couldn’t help but adm ire/couldn’t resist admiring/couldn’t keep from admiring her self-control. With a steady hand she threaded the needle and went on sewing as though nothing had happened. 18. He seemed quite a steady young man. 19. Let’s put something under the leg of the table to steady it.

B. 1. John’s room was in a dreadful/terrible/horrible mess but when his sister took advantage of his absence to tidy it up a bit he got very angry and said that he couldn’t find anything there any more/any longer. 2. You have m ade a m ess o f the w h ole jo b /m essed up th e w h o le job/blow n the whole job again. Aren’t you ashamed of not caring at all/being indifferent to everything? 3. She m ade a m ess o f m y plans/upset/frustrat­ ed/foiled my plans by keeping me waiting for four hours. 4. We heard a twig crack. Someone was approaching (us)/was com ­ ing. 5. How careless you are! Mother’s favorite vase has/is cracked: how could you wash it w ith/in boiling water? 6. Now it is dangerous/unsafe to cross the river because of the cracks in the ice. 7. The paint on the window-sill has/is cracked. We will have to scrape it off before repainting. 8. Regular training con­ tributed to his success in the competition. 9. He refused to con­ tribute his poems to our wall-newspaper and now there is no time to ask somebody else to do it. 10. The American painter/artist Rockwell Kent has contributed some of his works to the Pushkin Museum/ Museum’s collection of pictures. 11. He spoke with such spirit that he left nobody cold/nobody remained indifferent. 12. As soon as you tell him about it his spirits will rise. 13- You have taken the criticism in the right spir­ it, just as I expected. 14.1 remember that there is half a bottle of strawberry juice left somewhere. It tastes like nothing else on earth. (Its taste is beyond compare/is incomparable.) 15. At first/ Initially/In the beginning the taste of this unfamiliar fruit

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seemed unpleasant to us, but then/later we got used to slak­ ing/quenching our thirst with it. 16. All of us/We all knew her to be a woman of taste. 17.1 don’t like the taste of carrots. Don’t put them into the salad, please. 18. This shop has such a choice of goods that you are sure to find something to your taste. 19. He likes to crack/m ake jokes/to joke, but many of his jokes are in bad taste. 20. What a nuisance/How annoying! The cucum­ bers taste bitter/have a bitter taste.

Exercise 8, p. 22 1. Gossip. 2. Peel. 3. Contribution. 4. Taste. 5. A gossip.

6. We call such a person steady. 7. He/She can w in d /w rap / twist anyone round his/her little finger. 8. It is in a mess. 9 .1 would try to steady it. 10. I taste it. 11. I have to scrape it o u t/to scrape the burnt porridge off its bo ttom /to scrape it clean. 12. One must scrape up/together enough money to pay the tuition. 13. It is sure to crack. 14. If all goes well, my spirits rise/ are high, and if things go from bad to worse they sink/fall (they are low).

Exercise 9, p. 22 1. What are you talking about? I’m not a gossip. (I’m no gos­

sip.) 2. I know that it’s in a mess but how could I help it? I’ve slipped and fallen right into the mud. 3. You couldn’t be more wrong. He made a big contribution. (He contributed a lot to our success.) 4. Yes, I know I should have worked with more spirit, but honest to goodness I just couldn’t: I was feeling dog- tired. 5. I’m out of spirits. 6.1 guess that’s because I was in very low spirits. My girlfriend had just dum ped me. (I know I made a mess of my answer but it was because my next door neigh­ bour’s horrid music had kept me awake all night.) 7. Oh, dear God! It looks a mess! You must demand compensation. 8. We’d better add some water to it and stir it all up. 9- Don’t you know her? She’s the kind of woman to wind any man round her little finger. 10. It’s rotten. It tastes bitter. 11. Oh no, not he. He only just scraped through them. 12. The one whose shirt is in a mess. See that large gravy stain? And lipstick all over the collar? 13. Oh yes, he was though he just scraped through the entrance exams. 14. That’s metal scraping on glass. Disgusting, isn’t it?

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Exercise 13, p. 23 1. Stand in front of me, you’ll see better then, there will be

nothing in the way o f you view. 2. Frankly speaking, I don’t see anything in that idea. 3. She is always in trouble because o f/o n account o f her son. He can’t resist bad influence. 4 .1 can never talk easily to /w ith him, we have nothing in common. 5. A stitch in time saves nine. (Proverb) 6. A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush (Proverb). 7. There were not many people at the meeting, about 10 or 12 in number, I should think. 8. Our prepa­ ration had to be made in secret, which required caution. 9. We are in sight o f land now and will soon be in port. 10. The matter in itself is not important, in fact I was going to take no notice o f it, but he had acted in such a way that I must take it into consid­ eration. In any case it can’t affect you. 11.1 shall take these plates away now and bring the pudding in. 12. Come to our village in a m onth or so. You’ll see then how beautiful it is in early June, all the houses smothered in roses and not a cloud in the sky.

Exercise 14, pp. 23-24 1. Such a teacher is hard to find, he is one in a thousand.

2.1 was in the very midst of the crowd and couldn’t come up to you. 3. If I were you/in your place I would wait a little, it’s in your interest (s). 4. “Who has taken (got/picked) out the mail/the post today? One newspaper is missing,” the father said in indig­ nation/indignantly. 5. The bus conductor helped the/an old woman to get on. 6. Jim opened the door and let in the dog wet with rain. 7. “You are in low spirits today, aren’t you?” - “Yes, I’m feeling somewhat depressed/blue, I’d rather stay at home and read.” 8. John helped his wife off with her coat and into the arm­ chair by the fireplace. 9- Don’t you know that one should not write a test in pencil? 10. We got off the train and set out in search of a hotel. 11. Speak in a whisper. Anne seems to have fall­ en asleep. 12. George cut off a slice of bread, buttered it and started eating. 13. This student is sure of his knowledge and is showing off a little. 14. The paint won’t come off the coat, I can’t scrape it off. 15. “Do you know how he is getting on with the book he is writing?” - “I haven’t seen him for a long time, we don’t get along.” - “But why? I believe you are finding fault with him. For all his shortcomings/drawbacks/faults he is a very decent man.”

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